This annotated bibliography focuses on quantitative research on the consequences of paternal and maternal incarceration for children that attempts to control for selection using standard statistical techniques, uses broadly representative data, and differentiates consequences of paternal incarceration from consequences of maternal incarceration. Although the bibliography focuses primarily on research in the United States, a small number of studies using data from European countries are also included. The first section includes descriptive work showing how common paternal and maternal incarceration is and what the characteristics of children with incarcerated parents are. The second section briefly reviews the few studies on maternal incarceration. The third section considers the broader consequences of paternal incarceration for family structure and functioning. The fourth section considers the consequences of paternal incarceration for children who have not yet hit adolescence, and the fifth section considers the consequences of paternal incarceration for adolescents and young adults. At the end of the document, there is an extensive list of further readings that includes qualitative research, quantitative research that does not use broadly representative data or attempt to isolate average effects, and reviews on mass incarceration and American family life. (Author abstract modified)
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