The Impact of Fathers' Absence on African American Adolescents' Gender Role Development.

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Journal Name
Sex roles : a journal of research
Journal Volume
53
Journal Issue
3-4
Page Count
14
Year Published
2005
Author (Individual)
Mandara, Jelani.
Murray, Carolyn B.
Joyner, Toya N.
Resource Type
Journal Article
Resource Format
PDF
Gender role development was assessed in 52 father-absent and 54 father-present African American adolescents. Father-present boys, especially those from lower-income backgrounds, had higher perceptions of their masculinity than did father-absent boys. Lower income father-absent girls perceived themselves to be higher in masculinity than did all other girls. Consequently, father-present adolescents tended to have more traditional gender role orientations than did those in father-absent homes. It is argued that mothers' and fathers' different socializing strategies balance out in two-parent homes. However, in father-absent homes, mothers' tendency to rely on and pressure their daughters fosters relatively more masculine girls, whereas a lack of father socialization fosters less masculine boys. Implications for theory and future research are also discussed. (Author abstract)

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